Area defence system (limited anti-ship capability)
The Standard Missile (SM) family (officially written SATNDARD) evolved from several missile system programmes of the late 1940s generally known as 3-T. The system (missiles, launchers, weapon direction systems and radars) were RIM-2 Terrier (which entered service in 1954). RIM-8 Talos (1957) and RIM-24 Tartar (1962) the last being a shorter ranged cousin of Terrier. They were used extensively both by the US Navy and foreign customers and their supporting systems often remain in service, all the missiles have been replaced by the SM family.
This evolved because concern about reaction times and system reliability with the 3-T generation and as early as 1958 a replacement dubbed Super Talos/Super Terrier (later Typhoon) began development.
Rather than have separate missiles for the medium- and long-range requirements it was decided to concentrate upon one standard missile whose range could be extended with a booster. The Typhoon programme proved both too ambitious and too costly and it was therefore abandoned in December 1963 in favour of a simpler system which became Aegis. However the chief of Naval Operations had inaugurated a log-term research and development project to address missile problems and it was decided to approach the missile requirement using the standard missile philosophy of Typhon.
Development of what became the Standard Missile began in December 1964 with the award of a 13 million USD contract to General Dynamics for both Medium- Range (MR) and Extended-Range (ER) versions. The technical foundations for the former was the Improved Tartar Retrofit (RIM-24C) and for the latter the Homing Terrier 3 or HT-3 (RIM-2F), both of which benefited from scientific advances during the 1960s. In March 1967, General Dynamic’s Pomona Division was awarded a contract for full-scale production of the new missile. The first version to enter service, in 1968 was the SM-1 block IV (there were no Block I or Block II missiles while Block III were pre-production standard) and it was followed by Block V (1969-1974) and Block VI (1986-1996).
The SM-1 was exported to some nine countries and, with the sale of older US warships, it is likely there will be further export sales.
From 1970, a desire to improve the US Navy’s anti-ship capability led to the adaptation of SM-1 to the surface-to-surface role. The first version was the Surface-to-Surface Missile, Anti-Radiation Missile (SSM ARM) or RGM-66D with test firings from an ‘Asheville’ (PG 84) class FAC in 1971 and was purchased by Korea but was withdrawn from service circa 1997-1998. The surface-to-air missile was later used by destroyers and frigates as an interim measure pending the arrival of Harpoon whose superior performance prevented the active seeker anti-ship version of Standard (RGM-66F) from entering service. The conventional SM-1 has always had an anti-ship role and on 18 April 1988 the cruiser USS Wainwright (CG 28) and frigate USS Simpson (FFG 56) launched five SM-1 at the Iranian ‘Combatante II’ class FAC Joshan and sank her.
Development of the longer ranged SM-2 missile for cruiser and destroyer use began in 1969 with a view to use with the Aegis system and for this reason the missile incorporates a mid-course guidance capability. Production began in 1977 and the Block I missile entered service in 1979 as an interim weapon pending introduction of Block II for cruisers which had not received the New Threat Upgrade (NTU) package as well as for the Baseline 0-1 ‘Ticonderoga’ (CG 47) class cruisers. Charles F Adams (DDG 2) and Coontz (DDG 38) class destroyers. It is no longer operational.
The first major production version has been the Block II (which entered service in 1984) whose MR weapons were for ‘Ticonderoga’ class cruisers. NTU cruisers of the ‘California’ (CGN 36) and ‘Virginia’ (CGN 38) class as well as the ‘Arleigh Burke’ (DDG 51) and ‘Kidd’ (DDG 993)class destroyers. Plans existed to introduce SM-2 Block II into the ‘Oliver Hazard Perry’ (FFG 7) class frigates but they were not implemented. The ER weapons were designed for use in the ‘Long Beach’ (CGN 9), ‘Leahy’ (CG 16), ‘Belknap’ (CG 26), ‘Bainbridge’ (CGN 25) and ‘Truxtun’ (CGN 35) classes as well as the destroyer USS Mahan (DDG 42). All of these ships have now been decommissioned. The Block III missiles entered service in 1990 and replaced Block III weapons in cruise destroyers, the Block IIIB weapons benefitting from the Missile Homing Improvement Programme (MHIP).
Development of the Block IV missiles began in July 1987. These are dedicated vertically launched ER weapons for the ‘Ticonderoga’ and ‘Arleigh Burke’ class ships with land testing beginning in May 1992 and sea trials conducted by the USS Lake Eire (CG 70) from July 1994 with 12 missiles. In the first stage they were used to engage subsonic and supersonic targets with and without electronic jamming while the second stage involved engagements against subsonic sea-skimming BQM-34 drones. In addition to the conventional air defence role, the BLOCKIVA missiles will have a Theater Ballistic Missile Defence (TBMD) role by providing the ‘lower tier’ or endo-atmospheric system in support of Littoral Warfare operations. On 24 January 1997 a Block IVA developmental test round intercepted and destroyed a Lance ballistic missile at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. Although primarily for the US Navy these missiles may also be offered to certain allies and the Royal Netherlands Navy is reported to have expressed an interest in them.
For the US Navy’s Theater Wide (NTW) TBMD or ‘upper tier’ it is planned to provide the ‘Ticonderoga’ class cruisers with vertical launch systems with SM-3s (formerly) SM-X) carrying a Lightweight Exo-Atmospheric Projectile (LEAP) Kinetic Warhead (KW) (formerly Kinetic Kill Vehicle or KKV) to meet longer range ballistic missile threats. A series of demonstration tests or Functional Technology Validation (FTV) have been carried out with Rockwell and Hughes contenders. FTV-1 from the USS Richmond K Turner (CG 20) was in September 1992 using a modified Terrier missile while a year later the USS Jouett (CG 29) used a SM-2 Block III for FTV-2. The Richmond K Turner was subsequently used for FTV-3 and FTV-4 in March 1995.
Official and family designations of the missiles are listed below.
RLS = Rail Launch System
VLS = Vertical Launch System
WS = Weapon System
Plans existed for an RGM-66D fired from an ASROC launcher as RGM-66E but this remained on the drawing board as did proposals for the nuclear tipped SM-2N (RIM-67N) anti-ballistic missile and SM-2ER air defence missile with W81 nuclear warhead.
The Standard Missile was dual sourced between General Dynamics Pomona Division (which became part of Hughes Aircraft Company in 1992 and part of Raytheon Missile Systems Division but in February 1995 they pooled their resources to create the Standard Missile Company (SMCo) to develop and to produce these weapons.
The first Standard produced by SMCo, a Block IIIA missile was accepted by the US Navy in April 1997. The surface-to-air versions currently in service, or about to enter service, are shown below.
With US Navy demands for improvement in Naval Surface Fire Support, a new land-attack missile requirement has emerged as part of the Mid-term solution for deployment circa 2006. Since 1993 there have been proposals for a Land-Attack Standard Missile (formerly Strike Standard Missile) or LASM with nine SADARM anti-armour submunitions and added GPS guidance as well as a Supersonic Sea-Skimming Target (SSST) and a Theater Ballistic Missile Target (TBMT). Plans now exist for a demonstration programme for both involving three SSST and four Strike launchers between 1997 and 1998. If Standard is selected for SSST there would be 22 qualification and pre-production rounds and production of 30/50 targets a year from 2001.
A LASM demonstrator using a SM-2 Block IIIA missile demonstrated 87 o terminal angle in March 1997 and a second demonstration was made in November 1997 using GPS/inertial navigation system guidance.
If Standard Block II/III is selected for LASM (semi-officially referred to as SM-4) to complement Tomahawk in naval fire support role, development will begin in 1998 followed by a Block IV ER version, which would enter production in 2006.
A Near Term demonstration was given in November 1997 and another in March 1998, the latter showing compatibility with the GMVLS Mark 41 and the ability to make 87o terminal attack and in May 1998 it was revealed that the Chief of Naval Operations had opted to support development of this weapon system over Naval ATACMs. Tactical Tomahawk and SLAM ER.
In the spring of 1998 concept development of a Standard missile had begun specially to meet cruise missiles over land, a version designated semi-officially as SM-5.
Externally the SM family resembles Terrier and Tartar. The basic missile, which is also the Medium-Range (MR) version, is a long slim cylinder with a pointed nose. Along most of its length run four long-chord, narrow-span wings with polygon-shaped tailfins in line. In the Extended-Range (ER) version the dual-thrust rocket motor is replaced by the Mark 30 sustainer and a full-diameter cylindrical booster with cropped triangular fins is added.
Internally the basic missile is divided from nose to tail, into guidance, ordnance, autopilot (sometimes referred to as autopilot/battery), propulsion and steering control sections. The guidance section consists of a reference antenna, seeker head antenna and guidance section is a RF command link encoder/decoder (which differs between Terrier/Tartar and Aegis) and mid-course correction system. The ordnance section has a 115-kg warhead with Motorola (sole source from 1995) or Allied Signal Mark 45 impact and proximity fuze (Target Detection Device-TDD) while the autopilot section contains the autopilot and the missile battery. The propulsion section consists of the rocket motor while the steering control section has the electrical actuation system and tailfins. Many of the autopilot functions in the SM-2 Block IVA were transferred to the guidance section and consequently the autopilot section has been renamed the power control and telemetry section.
Both the SM-1 and SM-2 missiles have been subject to improvement packages to meet changing requirements. These are incorporated into production blocks, which usually include MR, ER and Aegis versions.
Standard Missile SM-1
The first production model, Block IV, was derived from the RIM-24C and retained many features of this missile. These included the Raytheon conical scan, solid-state, semi-active radar seeker with scan receiver, speed gate and analogue guidance computer, the Naval Weapon Center Mark 51 expanding rod warhead and Aerojet Mark 27 Mod 4 dual-thrust rocket motor. The most significant changes were in the control section where the General Dynamics Mark 1 autopilot was introduced and an electrical battery replaced the hydraulic-electric gas generator. The battery was installed to improve reaction times by more than 90 per cent (0.8s) because the generator took more than a minute to begin warm-up. Block IV also introduced electrical actuation.
The Block V missile had a Naval Weapon Center Mark 90 blast fragmentation warhead in the ordnance section with a Mark 45 Mod 0/3 TDD while in the propulsion section the Aerojet Mark 56 Mod 1 dual-thrust rocket motor replaced the Mark 27 to improve substantially both range and altitude performance. In the ER version (RIM-67A) a Mark 30 Mod 1 sustainer (also made by the Atlantic Research Corporation or ARC) was added and the Hercules Mark 12 booster provided further range. 1996 confined to the Italian Navy and for exercise its use by the US Navy.
Block VI missiles had a General Dynamics monopulse semi-active radar seeker with solid-state receiver and processor as well as a digital guidance computer. The antenna has four quadrants which pulsate to conduct 360 searches and a Mark 45 TDD; these improvements having been introduced with SM-2 Block I. Later versions of this missile replaced the Mark 51 expanding rod warhead (associated with the Mark 17 safety and arming unit) with the Mark 115 blast fragmentation warhead and its associated Mark 76 safety and arming unit. The ER version had a Mark 30 Mod 2 sustainer.
The SSM ARM was an anti-ship version of Block VMR designed to seek and to destroy enemy radars but is no longer in service.
Standard Missile 2 (SM-2)
The Block I missile is similar to the SM-1 Block V but the guidance section had the Mark 2 Mod 3 autopilot while within the propulsion section were either Aerojet Mark 56 dual-thrust rocket motor (MR) or the Mark 30 Mod 2 sustainer with Mark 12 booster (ER).
The Block II missiles was 24 cm longer than its predecessors and the digital signal processor incorporated fast Fourier techniques which helped to provide a home-on-jam capability. The ordnance section had the Mark 115 warhead with Mark 45 Mod 5 time-delay TDD. The propulsion section introduced the Thiokol Mark 104 dual-thrust rocket motor (381.4 kg of propellant) with ARC acting as second source until 1995 when it became the sole producer. This motor provided substantial improvement in speed manoeuvrability and range increasing the last in SM-2MR by some 60 per cent. The Mark 30 Mod 3 (Mod 4 in later models) sustainer was used but the new booster, Mark 70 (a re-grained Mark 12), with higher energy propellant, doubled the ER range.
The Block III has improved electronics and a Mark 45 Mod 8 TDD which was added to improve Standard Missile capability against low-altitude targets while retaining the area defence capabilities of Block II. The Block IIIA missiles incorporates MK 125 warhead with heavier grain explosive and the MK 45 Mod 9 TDD while the Block IIIB adds a Raytheon IR seeker which is covered by an eject-able faring. Both Block IIIA and Block IIIB can participate in Co-operative Engagement Capability (CEC) operations with other ships able to provide target-tracking data to platforms launching the missiles. It is hoped that CEC will permit missile control after launch to be transferred to another ship, either during the mid-course guidance phase or even during the transition from this to the terminal guidance phase. This is known as a ‘Forward Pass’ engagement.
Block IV is the latest version of the SM-2 for hemispheric defence in a severe electronic environment against aircraft and missiles (even with low radar cross-sections) from high altitudes down to sea level and was approved for low rate initial production in 1995 pending approval of production for Block IVA. Aerodynamic and motor improvements double the missile’s range and increase altitude by a third.
Externally it will differ from its predecessors in having larger dorsal fins with thin extensions as insulation to accommodate heat build-up.
The tailfins will be of a new design while the finless booster will feature a four-nozzle thrust vector control system. A 1.82 m long United Technologies Chemical Systems Division Mark 72 thrust vector control booster (with 474.6 kg of propellant) which will be 53.4 cm in diameter is also part of the design.
The nose will have slip-cast, fused-silica radome and the guidance section a new low-sidelobe antenna. The missile will also have a new low-noise microwave receiver, a solid-state local oscillator, a dual Motorola 68020 digital signal processor which will use techniques similar to those in Patriot, AMRAAM and Sparrow missiles, to provide a 50 per cent improvement in performance against low radar cross-section targets. The Mark 125 warhead will be retained and the Mark 45 Mod 10 TDD will be introduced to meet a wider range of relative speeds for precise burst-point selection. The Mod 9 and Mod 10 have identical electronics hardware but differing software. Further modifications include a faster, digital autopilot (possibly Mk 3) to improve manoeuvrability and to reduce the miss-distance as well as a new actuation system.
The Block IVA will add the ballistic missile interception capability in the ‘lower tier’ (30.000 m) but will also be able to intercept air targets even at sea level. The dorsal fins will be moved forward 140 mm and will be reduced in length by 31 mm while an imaging infrared seeker with staring focal plane array and cooled sapphire dome will be added. Internally the missile will receive a forward-looking fuze coupled with the Mark 125 warhead and Mark 45 Mod 10 TDD upgraded to Mod 11 standard. The missile will feature improved cross-range and very high-altitude performance even against high-speed manoeuvring targets with reduced signatures. The cruiser USS Lake Eire (CG 70) and USS Port Royal (CG 73) will be the first to receive Block IVA missiles and Theater ballistic missile defence system modifications.
It is intended that the SM-3 (formerly SM-X) will replace the conventional warhead with a kinetic warhead (formerly KKV) and a dual-pulse third-stage rocket motor. The kinetic warhead will weigh 18.2 kg and will be ejected from the missile and then accelerate to an intercept velocity reported at 4.000 m/s (approximately 14.400 Km/h).
There will be a separate Solid Divert and Altitude Control System (SDACS) for lateral movement, which will enable the kinetic warhead to strike the target’s warhead with sufficient kinetic energy that even a graze hit, will ensure destruction.
Acquisition and aim-point selection will be by means of an IR seeker with a tracking accuracy measured in microradians and employing a 256 x 256-element focal plane array in the long-range band. The contenders for the kinetic warhead were Hughes Missile Systems Company and Rockwell’s Rocketdyne Division, but in 1996 they merged their proposals. The SM-3 is intended to be 6.55m long with a diameter 34.8 cm (the booster would have a diameter of 53.3 cm) and would weigh 1.501 kg.
The SM-4 (LASM) would be based upon a SM-2 Block II missile with new nose cone, the Mark 125 warhead, a GPS/inertial navigation system based upon that of the SM-3 with Tomahawk anti-jam antenna and a new autopilot/battery section. The rear of the missile would be unchanged. Consideration has been given to an extended range version with Mark 72 booster and nine SADARM (Search And Destroy Armour Monition), with BAT (Brilliant Anti-Tank) or an M80 submunition dispenser. The SM-4 would be 4.72 m long, with a diameter of 34.3 cm and would weigh 750 kg.
The Standard family may be operated from all US Navy’s 3-T Guided Missile Launch Systems (GMLS) as well as the Mk 41 vertical launch missile system. The missiles are not interchangeable between rail and vertical launching systems. The Iranian, Korean and Taiwanese navies also have box-launcher versions with one reload per launcher.
Control of the Standard has normally been through the Tartar (Mark 74), Terrier (Mk 76) and Aegis (Mk 99) weapon-control systems supported by NTDS and Weapon Designation Systems although Terrier/Mk 76 has largely been withdrawn form service. Also associated with Standard are the Mk 86 and Mk 96 fire-control systems. For long-range detection of targets (162 n miles/300 km) the 2D AN/SPS-40 E/F band (2-4 GHz), 3D AN/SPS-48 E/F band and 2D AN/SPS-49 C/D-band (0.5-2 GHz) air-search radars often support the missile, the last supplementing AN/SPY-1 multi-function radars. The radars are often complemented by an AN/SYS-1/2 data fusion system.
When the target is detected the VDS evaluates the data and designates the target for the missile fire-control system which then tracks and illuminates it. Where no NTDS/WDS is available the search radar data is provided directly to the fire-control system but in either case each tracker/illuminator radar usually controls only one missile.
But by using multiplex techniques the radars can support several missiles simultaneously while the fire-control and illumination radar frequencies may be changed during the missile’s flight without any loss in efficiency.
To assist Terrier/Tartar systems monitor the missile’s flight an AN/SYR-1 communications tracking set with phased array antenna is included in the ship fit to receive data downlinked from the missile and to transmit it to the WDS. The SYR-1 has two receivers and can receive data from many missiles by using time-sharing techniques. Aegis ships have a direct link via the SPY-1 radar system. A unique feature of the NTU programme was the Remote Track Launch on Search capability with missiles fired off link track data provided by an Aegis ship.
The WDS or fire-control system initiates the launch sequence and the fire-control system monitors the interception.
In SM-1 once the missile is launched the tracker’s main illumination beam holds the target while the rear reference illuminator beam provides guidance data through the missile’s rear reference antenna. By these means the missile is guided until the onboard seeker detects the target’s CW reflected energy from the main illuminator beam allowing the onboard guidance system to complete the interception usually through a diving attack.
Control of SM-2 is similar but the missile’s course is controlled from the ship through a RF link until the target enters the missile seeker’s field-of-view. This system allows the ship’s radar to provide missile in-flight targetting data and by shaping the missile flight path into a more energy-efficient trajectory, doubles the missile’s effective range. A typical ER engagement involves the launch of the missile with booster, before ejection, taking the missile into a trajectory, which ensures the mid-course phase, will be at a high altitude for the maximum lift-to-drag ratio. The inertial reference unit is used to bring the missile into a pre-calculated point in the targets vicinity using target data updated from the ship by a RF uplink.
When used by the Aegis system this has the advantage of using the tracker/illuminator only during the terminal phase to reduce ship exposure time to ESM systems. The downlink is used periodically to provide the ship with the location of the missile. With Tartar/Terrier systems ER missiles may be launched purely on search information to free weapon control radars until they are required near the terminal phase.
Block IVA will conduct engagements against aircraft and anti-ship missiles in the same way as earlier weapons. Against ballistic missiles it will receive the usual mid-course guidance data but in the terminal phase the missile will approach the target, the IR seeker faring will be ejected and the missile will rotate to bring the seeker to bear. The missile will come under IR guidance and the image will be resolved until the target comes within ‘view’ of the forward-looking proximity fuze. The missile will then be guided to an interception point where the warhead will be detonated. FSV tests show the SM-3 type weapon being launched in the same way as conventional SM but after 111 seconds the nose cone covering the KKV is ejected and the third stage ignites. The KKV is ejected 46 seconds later and within 20 seconds intercepts the target at a range of 230 n miles (425 km) and at an altitude of 122.000 m.
If the interception fails then an endo-atmospheric interception may be attempted. SM-3 Block 0 will be development missiles including Control Test Vehicles and Guidance Test Vehicles, SM-3 Block I will be the engineering-manufacturing development missiles and SM-3 Block II will be initial operating missiles.
Some 21.000 Standard missiles have been produced and the missiles are used or have been selected by 15 customers. Production for the US Navy continues of SM-2 Block IIIA but this was funded only until beginning of 1995 and is being supplanted by Block IIIB initially by updating older missiles, but from 1996 new-build rounds were produced. Block IV was approved in 1995 for low initial rate production with first deliveries in 1998 while SM-3 (formerly SM-X) is in an early stage of development, with Block I appearing in 2002 and Block II in 2006.
It is anticipated that 1.500 SM-2 Block IVA and 650 SM-3 Block I/II missiles will be required by the US Navy